Definition of Paranoid Personality Disorder
Paranoid personality disorder is one of the group A personality disorders. The characteristic paranoia experienced triggers distrust and high suspicion of others. This disorder generally appears in childhood or adolescence and is more common in men than women.
Causes of Paranoid Personality Disorder
The main cause of paranoid personality disorder is not known with certainty. However, genetic factors have an important role in the emergence of this personality disorder. For example, because there is one family member who suffers from schizophrenia.
In addition, unpleasant childhood experiences can also be the cause of the emergence of paranoid personality disorder. Examples include families who educate their children with threats, abusive parental behavior, and parents who like to humiliate their children.
Risk Factors for Paranoid Personality Disorder
There are several risk factors that trigger paranoid personality disorder. Here are some of them:
– Gender. Men are more at risk than women.
– Family mental health history. Paranoid personality disorder is more common in people who have relatives with schizophrenia.
– Environmental factor. Physical and emotional trauma to early childhood experiences.
Symptoms of Paranoid Personality Disorder
People with this condition are always alert and believe that other people are constantly trying to humiliate, hurt, or threaten them. Such beliefs are generally unfounded. In addition, the following are some of the common symptoms experienced by people with paranoid personality disorder:
– Worries that others have ulterior motives.
– Expectations that they will be exploited (used) by others.
– Doubt the commitment, loyalty, or trustworthiness of others, believe that others are using or deceiving them.
– Reluctant to tell other people or disclose personal information, out of fear that the information will be used against them.
– Unable to forgive and hold grudges.
– Hypersensitive and accept criticism with negative impact.
– Unable to work with other people.
– Read the hidden meaning of simple statements or ordinary views of others.
– Capture attacks on their characters that are invisible to others. They generally react with anger and are quick to retaliate.
– Have repeated and unwarranted suspicions that their partner or lover is unfaithful.
– Isolated socially.
– Generally, is cold and distant in relationships with others and may become a curmudgeon and jealous.
– Does not feel the stickiness.
– Unfriendly, stubborn, and argumentative.
Diagnosis of Paranoid Personality Disorder
To diagnose paranoid personality disorder, your doctor will recommend that you undergo a psychological evaluation of how they think and act, and how they feel. Information from the patient can be obtained by the doctor by asking directly or through a questionnaire.
Physical examination is also needed to find out whether the personality disorder of the sufferer is caused by a health disorder in their physique. Based on this, the doctor may ask what symptoms the sufferer feels or do blood tests in the laboratory.
In addition, the examination of alcohol levels or illegal drugs is also carried out to determine whether personality disorders occur due to these substances. The reason is that people with alcohol addiction may experience a number of symptoms of paranoid personality disorder.
Paranoid Personality Disorder Treatment
Treatment is a difficult thing to do. The reason is, people with this condition often feel very suspicious of people other than themselves, including doctors. If treatment is accepted, talk therapy and medication can often be effective.
– Psychotherapy. This treatment procedure focuses on improving coping abilities. For example, such as increasing social interaction, communication, self-confidence, and other basic things.
– Drugs. Anti-anxiety, antidepressant, or antipsychotic medications are given to people with extreme symptoms, or who have other psychological problems, such as anxiety or depression.
By taking a number of recommended treatment steps, sufferers can maintain their jobs and maintain healthy relationships with those around them. However, the treatment must be carried out for life, with the aim of controlling the symptoms that arise.